categories | tags | Aimee's Blog
Aimee's Study Notes

It is updated automatically after each commit to the org-notes repo. It was last updated on Mar 01, 2021 00:18 UTC.

This page was created/modified in commit fbe9eb9 "add captain todo" on 2021-02-03.
Markdown source of this page

Project: The Big Announcement

categories: hacking

tags: substrate ethereum smartcontract


A tiny smart contract.


Project intro and status

The Big Announcement project on different chains.


TBA on Ethereum

TBA on Substrate

Ink code


Substrate Hacklog

Contract naming

$ cargo contract new bigannouncement-substrate
ERROR: Contract names cannot contain hyphens

New name: tbaSubstrate ;)

$ cargo contract new tbaSubstrate
      Created contract tbaSubstrate

But Rust seems doesn’t like it:

warning: crate `tbaSubstrate` should have a snake case name
  = note: `#[warn(non_snake_case)]` on by default
  = help: convert the identifier to snake case: `tba_substrate`

My mood is just like this post: Frustrated? It’s not you, it’s Rust

Failed of using ink_prelude

I use cargo add ink_prelude, and it shows in the Cargo.toml as

ink_prelude = "0.0.0"

But the newest released version is different, and I change it to

ink_prelude = "3.0.0-rc2"

Then build it, and there is a new error:

$ cargo +nightly contract build
 [1/3] Building cargo project
   Compiling ink_prelude v3.0.0-rc2
   Compiling ink_primitives v3.0.0-rc2
error[E0463]: can't find crate for `std`
  = note: the `wasm32-unknown-unknown` target may not be installed

error: aborting due to previous error

For more information about this error, try `rustc --explain E0463`.
error: could not compile `ink_prelude`

Keep trying:

$ rustup install nightly-2020-10-06
info: syncing channel updates for 'nightly-2020-10-06-x86_64-apple-darwin'
info: latest update on 2020-10-06, rust version 1.49.0-nightly (a1dfd2490 2020-10-05)

$ rustup target add wasm32-unknown-unknown --toolchain nightly-2020-10-06
info: downloading component 'rust-std' for 'wasm32-unknown-unknown'
info: installing component 'rust-std' for 'wasm32-unknown-unknown'
info: using up to 500.0 MiB of RAM to unpack components
Aimees-MacBook-Pro:tbaSubstrate aimeez$ cargo +nightly-2020-10-06 build --release


warning: unused imports: `format`, `string`
4 | use ink_prelude::{format, string};
  |                   ^^^^^^  ^^^^^^
  = note: `#[warn(unused_imports)]` on by default

warning: 1 warning emitted

    Finished release [optimized] target(s) in 1m 24s

$ cargo contract build && cargo contract generate-metadata
 [1/3] Building cargo project
   Compiling ink_prelude v3.0.0-rc2
error[E0463]: can't find crate for `std`
  = note: the `wasm32-unknown-unknown` target may not be installed

error: aborting due to previous error

For more information about this error, try `rustc --explain E0463`.
error: could not compile `ink_prelude`

At last, I use alloc instead of ink_prelude:

use alloc::{string::String, format};

It built.

Deploy failed:


Run Rust test command

$ cargo +nightly test -- new_works # test new an instance
$ RUST_BACKTRACE=1 cargo +nightly test -- new_works


let message = String::from("Initialize the Big Announcement contract");
ink_env::debug_println(&format!("thanks for instantiation {:?}, and price {}", &message, price));
$ cargo +nightly test -- --nocapture

    Finished test [unoptimized + debuginfo] target(s) in 0.08s
     Running target/debug/deps/tba_substrate-6d0825befe66c5c8

running 2 tests
thanks for instantiation "Initialize the Big Announcement contract", and price 340282366920938463463374607431768211455
thanks for instantiation "Initialize the Big Announcement contract", and price 1
Thanks for posting the message "new message"
test tba_substrate::tests::new_works ... ok
test tba_substrate::tests::set_works ... ok

test result: ok. 2 passed; 0 failed; 0 ignored; 0 measured; 0 filtered out
$ cargo +nightly test -- --nocapture set_works

Test ink’s example: contract-transfer

fn transfer_works() {
    // given
    let contract_balance = 100;
    let accounts = default_accounts();
    let mut give_me = create_contract(contract_balance);

    println!("alice: {}", get_balance(accounts.alice));
    // when
    set_balance(accounts.eve, 0);
    println!("eve: {}", get_balance(accounts.eve));
    assert_eq!(give_me.give_me(80), Ok(()));

    println!("eve after: {}", get_balance(accounts.eve));
    println!("alice after: {}", get_balance(accounts.alice));

    // then
    assert_eq!(get_balance(accounts.eve), 80);

The printing shows that alice’s balance didn’t change while eve’s balance changed.

$ cargo +nightly test -- --nocapture transfer_works
running 1 test
alice after: 170141183460469231731687303715884105727
eve: 0
eve after: 80
alice after: 170141183460469231731687303715884105727
test give_me::tests::transfer_works ... ok

TBA on Dfinity

Motoko code

TBA Motoko

Dfinity Hacklog

Previous log is on Gist.

For building TBA, I started with its example Echo. The seems to be out of date – it starts a node dfx start before creating a project, while the tutorials, Start the local network, need you to start a node inside a project. I don’t think I would use Echo now.

I’ll create a tba folder, and start the node:

$ dfx new tba
Fetching manifest
⠁ Checking for latest dfx version...
You seem to be running an outdated version of dfx.

You are strongly encouraged to upgrade by running 'dfx upgrade'!
Creating new project "tba"...
CREATE       tba/src/tba_assets/assets/sample-asset.txt (24B)...
CREATE       tba/src/tba/ (107B)...
CREATE       tba/dfx.json (454B)...
CREATE       tba/.gitignore (165B)...
⠤ Checking for latest dfx version...
CREATE       tba/src/tba_assets/public/index.js (131B)...
CREATE       tba/package.json (282B)...
CREATE       tba/webpack.config.js (2.15KB)...
⠉ Checking for latest dfx version...
⠂ Installing node dependencies...
⠴ Installing node dependencies...
⠐ Checking for latest dfx version...
⠈ Checking for latest dfx version...

> fsevents@1.2.13 install /<my_path>/tba/node_modules/watchpack-chokidar2/node_modules/fsevents
> node install.js
⠦ Checking for latest dfx version...
⠙ Installing node dependencies...
⠤ Checking for latest dfx version...
⠂ Installing node dependencies...
npm WARN tba_assets@0.1.0 No repository field.
npm WARN tba_assets@0.1.0 No license field.

⠲ Installing node dependencies...

13 packages are looking for funding
  run `npm fund` for details

found 1 high severity vulnerability
⠐ Checking for latest dfx version...

        Welcome to the internet computer developer community!
                        You're using dfx 0.6.20

            ▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄                ▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄
          ▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄          ▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄
        ▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄      ▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄
       ▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▀▀▀▀▀▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄  ▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▀▀▀▀▀▀▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄
      ▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▀         ▀▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▀         ▀▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄
     ▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▀            ▀▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▀             ▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄
     ▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄               ▀▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▀                ▄▄▄▄▄▄▄
     ▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄                ▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄                 ▄▄▄▄▄▄▄
     ▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄               ▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄              ▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄
      ▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄           ▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄          ▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▀
      ▀▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄     ▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▀ ▀▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄    ▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄
       ▀▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▀     ▀▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▀
         ▀▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▀         ▀▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄
           ▀▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▀▀             ▀▀▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▀
              ▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀                    ▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀

To learn more before you start coding, see the documentation available online:

- Quick Start:
- SDK Developer Tools:
- Motoko Language Guide:
- Motoko Quick Reference:

If you want to work on programs right away, try the following commands to get started:

    cd tba
    dfx help
    dfx new --help


By the way, I follow the suggestion to upgrade my dfx, and it seems it doesn’t do anything useful:

$ dfx upgrade
Current version: 0.6.20
Fetching manifest
Already up to date

$ dfx --version
dfx 0.6.20

I start another terminal window for the node:

$ dfx start
Jan 27 16:01:01.798 INFO ic-starter. Configuration: ValidatedConfig { replica_path: Some("/Users/aimeez/.cache/dfinity/versions/0.6.20/replica"), replica_version: "0.1.0", log_level: Warning, subnet_id: fscpm-uiaaa-aaaaa-aaaap-yai, cargo_bin: "cargo", cargo_opts: "", state_dir: "/<my_path>/tba/.dfx/state/replicated_state", http_listen_addr: V4(, http_port_file: Some("/<my_path>/tba/.dfx/replica-configuration/replica-1.port"), metrics_addr: None, hypervisor_create_funds_whitelist: "*", artifact_pool_dir: "/<my_path>/tba/.dfx/state/replicated_state/node-100/ic_consensus_pool", crypto_root: "/<my_path>/tba/.dfx/state/replicated_state/node-100/crypto", state_manager_root: "/<my_path>/tba/.dfx/state/replicated_state/node-100/state", registry_file: "/<my_path>/tba/.dfx/state/replicated_state/registry.proto", bootstrap_registry: None, state_dir_holder: None }, Application: starter
Jan 27 16:01:01.799 INFO Initialize replica configuration "/<my_path>/tba/.dfx/state/replicated_state/ic.json5", Application: starter
Jan 27 16:01:01.816 INFO Executing "/Users/aimeez/.cache/dfinity/versions/0.6.20/replica" "--replica-version" "0.1.0" "--config-file" "/<my_path>/tba/.dfx/state/replicated_state/ic.json5", Application: starter
Jan 27 16:01:06.664 ERRO s:fscpm-uiaaa-aaaaa-aaaap-yai/n:owpmo-ykels-vijqd-6ql2q-gklnb-6oii4-2zkce-54jdn-vt7ob-hrn7h-hae/ic_messaging/xnet_endpoint No XNet configuration for node owpmo-ykels-vijqd-6ql2q-gklnb-6oii4-2zkce-54jdn-vt7ob-hrn7h-hae. This is an error in production, but may be ignored in single-subnet test deployments.
Jan 27 16:01:07.671 WARN s:fscpm-uiaaa-aaaaa-aaaap-yai/n:owpmo-ykels-vijqd-6ql2q-gklnb-6oii4-2zkce-54jdn-vt7ob-hrn7h-hae/ic_http_handler/ic_http_handler NNS subnet not found in network topology. Skipping fetching the delegation.
Starting webserver on port 61644 for replica at "http://localhost:61644"
binding to: V4(
replica(s): http://localhost:61644/

I go back to the first terminal window and deploy (before build that I usually do) it. Now there comes an error:

$ dfx deploy
Deploying all canisters.
Creating canisters...
Creating canister "tba"...
"tba" canister created with canister id: "rwlgt-iiaaa-aaaaa-aaaaa-cai"
Creating canister "tba_assets"...
"tba_assets" canister created with canister id: "rrkah-fqaaa-aaaaa-aaaaq-cai"
Building canisters...
Building frontend...
The post-build step failed for canister 'rrkah-fqaaa-aaaaa-aaaaq-cai' with an embedded error: The command '"npm" "run" "build"' failed with exit status 'exit code: 1'.

> tba_assets@0.1.0 build /<my_path>/tba
> webpack

      const hooks = compiler.webpack.javascript.JavascriptModulesPlugin.getCompilationHooks(compilation);

TypeError: Cannot read property 'javascript' of undefined
    at compiler.hooks.compilation.tap.compilation (/<my_path>/tba/node_modules/terser-webpack-plugin/dist/index.js:572:38)
    at SyncHook.eval [as call] (eval at create (/<my_path>/tba/node_modules/tapable/lib/HookCodeFactory.js:19:10), <anonymous>:85:1)
    at SyncHook.lazyCompileHook (/<my_path>/tba/node_modules/tapable/lib/Hook.js:154:20)
    at Compiler.newCompilation (/<my_path>/tba/node_modules/webpack/lib/Compiler.js:631:26)
    at hooks.beforeCompile.callAsync.err (/<my_path>/tba/node_modules/webpack/lib/Compiler.js:667:29)
    at AsyncSeriesHook.eval [as callAsync] (eval at create (/<my_path>/tba/node_modules/tapable/lib/HookCodeFactory.js:33:10), <anonymous>:6:1)
    at AsyncSeriesHook.lazyCompileHook (/<my_path>/tba/node_modules/tapable/lib/Hook.js:154:20)
    at Compiler.compile (/<my_path>/tba/node_modules/webpack/lib/Compiler.js:662:28)
    at readRecords.err (/<my_path>/tba/node_modules/webpack/lib/Compiler.js:321:11)
    at Compiler.readRecords (/<my_path>/tba/node_modules/webpack/lib/Compiler.js:529:11)
    at (/<my_path>/tba/node_modules/webpack/lib/Compiler.js:318:10)
    at AsyncSeriesHook.eval [as callAsync] (eval at create (/<my_path>/tba/node_modules/tapable/lib/HookCodeFactory.js:33:10), <anonymous>:6:1)
    at AsyncSeriesHook.lazyCompileHook (/<my_path>/tba/node_modules/tapable/lib/Hook.js:154:20)
    at hooks.beforeRun.callAsync.err (/<my_path>/tba/node_modules/webpack/lib/Compiler.js:315:19)
    at AsyncSeriesHook.eval [as callAsync] (eval at create (/<my_path>/tba/node_modules/tapable/lib/HookCodeFactory.js:33:10), <anonymous>:15:1)
    at AsyncSeriesHook.lazyCompileHook (/<my_path>/tba/node_modules/tapable/lib/Hook.js:154:20)
    at (/<my_path>/tba/node_modules/webpack/lib/Compiler.js:312:24)
    at runWithDependencies (/<my_path>/tba/node_modules/webpack/lib/MultiCompiler.js:265:15)
    at (/<my_path>/tba/node_modules/webpack/lib/MultiCompiler.js:185:6)
    at arrayEachIndex (/<my_path>/tba/node_modules/neo-async/async.js:2548:9)
    at (/<my_path>/tba/node_modules/neo-async/async.js:2900:9)
    at runCompilers (/<my_path>/tba/node_modules/webpack/lib/MultiCompiler.js:182:13)
    at MultiCompiler.runWithDependencies (/<my_path>/tba/node_modules/webpack/lib/MultiCompiler.js:194:3)
    at (/<my_path>/tba/node_modules/webpack/lib/MultiCompiler.js:261:9)
    at processOptions (/<my_path>/tba/node_modules/webpack-cli/bin/cli.js:353:14)
    at yargs.parse (/<my_path>/tba/node_modules/webpack-cli/bin/cli.js:364:3)
    at Object.parse (/<my_path>/tba/node_modules/yargs/yargs.js:567:18)
    at /<my_path>/tba/node_modules/webpack-cli/bin/cli.js:49:8
    at Object.<anonymous> (/<my_path>/tba/node_modules/webpack-cli/bin/cli.js:366:3)
    at Module._compile (internal/modules/cjs/loader.js:778:30)
npm ERR! errno 1
npm ERR! tba_assets@0.1.0 build: `webpack`
npm ERR! Exit status 1
npm ERR!
npm ERR! Failed at the tba_assets@0.1.0 build script.
npm ERR! This is probably not a problem with npm. There is likely additional logging output above.

I build directly, and still an error:

$ dfx build
Cannot find canister id. Please issue 'dfx canister create tba_assets'.

I don’t know what to do with this error while checking back with Dfinity’s documentation. So I rm -rf tba and then use dfx new tba to re-create tba. Now it works:

$ dfx deploy
Deploying all canisters.
Creating canisters...
Creating canister "tba"...
"tba" canister created with canister id: "rwlgt-iiaaa-aaaaa-aaaaa-cai"
Creating canister "tba_assets"...
"tba_assets" canister created with canister id: "rrkah-fqaaa-aaaaa-aaaaq-cai"
Building canisters...
Building frontend...
Installing canisters...
Installing code for canister tba, with canister_id rwlgt-iiaaa-aaaaa-aaaaa-cai
Installing code for canister tba_assets, with canister_id rrkah-fqaaa-aaaaa-aaaaq-cai
Deployed canisters.

Test it:

$ dfx build
Building canisters...
Building frontend...

$ dfx canister call tba greet me
("Hello, me!")

My processes are:

It seems that the deployment operation also builds the project before deploy it.

Now, I am going to write some code (change the default one). The default code in tba/src/tba/ is:

actor {
    public func greet(name : Text) : async Text {
        return "Hello, " # name # "!";

The Motoko seems to be easy to use, its syntax looks strange, though.

My contract code is:

actor TBA {
    stable var tba_msg = "The Big Announcement";

    public func set_message(msg : Text) : async Text {
        tba_msg := msg;
        return "Hello, " # tba_msg # "!";

    public func set_message_no_return(msg : Text) {
        tba_msg := msg;

    public func loading_message() : async Text {
        return tba_msg;

Test with command line:

$ dfx canister call tba set_message My_Big_Announcement_Test
("Hello, My_Big_Announcement_Test!")

$ dfx canister call tba set_message_no_return My_Big_Announcement_Test_No_Return

$ dfx canister call tba loading_message

I have to mention that error messages are not useful. I try to change some code and build failed. The error messages are:

$ dfx build
Building canisters...
Building frontend...
The build step failed for canister 'rwlgt-iiaaa-aaaaa-aaaaa-cai' with an embedded error: The command '"/Users/aimeez/.cache/dfinity/versions/0.6.20/moc" "/<my_path>/tba/src/tba/" "-o" "/<my_path>/tba/.dfx/local/canisters/tba/tba.did" "--idl" "--actor-idl" "/<my_path>/tba/.dfx/local/canisters/idl/" "--actor-alias" "tba" "rwlgt-iiaaa-aaaaa-aaaaa-cai" "--actor-alias" "tba_assets" "rrkah-fqaaa-aaaaa-aaaaq-cai" "--package" "base" "/Users/aimeez/.cache/dfinity/versions/0.6.20/base"' failed with exit status 'exit code: 1'.

/<my_path>/tba/src/tba/ type error, unbound type Test

I have no clue where to start debugging, or guessing. Not fun.

Using Rust to write TBA

Official tutorials: Using Rust

I’m glad I can use Rust command directly to create a project. But, that’s all.

$ cargo new tba_rust
     Created binary (application) `tba_rust` package
Aimees-MacBook-Pro:dfinity-project aimeez$ cd tba_rust/
Aimees-MacBook-Pro:tba_rust aimeez$ dfx build
Command must be run in a project directory (with a dfx.json file).
Aimees-MacBook-Pro:tba_rust aimeez$ cargo build
   Compiling tba_rust v0.1.0 (/<my_path>/tba_rust)
    Finished dev [unoptimized + debuginfo] target(s) in 3.51s

Then I need to copy Cargo.toml to another place according the tutorials:

Projects that run on the Internet Computer typically use one project-level Cargo.toml file to set up a workspace for the canister members of the project and a second Cargo.toml file in the source code directory to configure settings for each canister.

After finishing the basic round of configuration, I use cargo build and there is an error:

$ cargo build
error: failed to read `/<my_path>/tba_rust/src/tba_rust/Cargo.toml`

Caused by:
  No such file or directory (os error 2)

The path is incorrect, and I change it in the root Cargo.toml file:

members = [

cargo build works but dfx build doesn’t work (I have started dfx start in another terminal window). The error is:

$ cargo build
   Compiling tba_rust v0.1.0 (/<my_path>/tba_rust/src)

$ dfx build
Building canisters...
Executing 'cargo build --target wasm32-unknown-unknown --package tba_rust'
   Compiling tba_rust v0.1.0 (/<my_path>/tba_rust/src)
warning: function is never used: `main`
 --> src/
1 | fn main() {
  |    ^^^^
  = note: `#[warn(dead_code)]` on by default

warning: 1 warning emitted

    Finished dev [unoptimized + debuginfo] target(s) in 0.23s
The post-build step failed for canister 'rwlgt-iiaaa-aaaaa-aaaaa-cai' with an embedded error: No such file or directory (os error 2)

However, the config members = ["src/",] isn’t right according to Rust configuration. I create another folder tba_rust under /<my_path>/tba_rust/src/, and move all the files from src to src/tba_rust. Then I add cdylib to my /<my_path>/tba_rust/src/Cargo.toml file.

path = ""
crate-type = ["cdylib"]

Now both cargo build and dfx build work. The terminal prints:

$ dfx build
Building canisters...
Executing 'cargo build --target wasm32-unknown-unknown --package tba_rust'
   Compiling tba_rust v0.1.0 (/<my_path>/tba_rust/src/tba_rust)
warning: function is never used: `main`
 --> src/tba_rust/
1 | fn main() {
  |    ^^^^
  = note: `#[warn(dead_code)]` on by default

warning: 1 warning emitted

    Finished dev [unoptimized + debuginfo] target(s) in 1.37s

The documentation has been misguiding so far.

Deploy it:

$ dfx canister install --all
Installing code for canister tba_rust, with canister_id rwlgt-iiaaa-aaaaa-aaaaa-cai
The Replica returned an error: code 5, message: "Canister rwlgt-iiaaa-aaaaa-aaaaa-cai cannot be installed because the canister is not empty. Try installing with mode='reinstall' instead."

$ dfx canister install --mode reinstall
error: The following required arguments were not provided:

    dfx canister install --mode <mode> --all

For more information try --help

$ dfx canister install --mode reinstall --all
Installing code for canister tba_rust, with canister_id rwlgt-iiaaa-aaaaa-aaaaa-cai

I am not going to move forward since there is no more tutorials about Rust programming on Dfinity.

Dfinity references

A Technical Overview of the Internet Computer

The Internet Computer’s Token Economics: An Overview

You can do two things with ICP tokens:


Software canisters that run on the Internet Computer must be charged with cycles, which are used to power computations and memory management, and are burned in the process. The conversion of ICP tokens to cycles occurs at a variable rate, which is constantly configured by the NNS in response to external markets.

Sample Apps

Dfinity Motoko Programming Language

Motoko lets you declare certain variables as stable. The values of stable variables are automatically preserved across software upgrades.

It’s weird to use another name stable to replace a name that is in consensus static.

Candid Specification

It brings some design thoughts, especially the section Services. An interesting read.

Using Rust

Crate candid

Forum post: Developer Experience, January 2021

TBA on Solana

Solana hacklog


Install Solana:

$ sh -c "$(curl -sSfL"
downloading v1.5.5 installer
Configuration: /<my_path>/.config/solana/install/config.yml
Active release directory: /<my_path>/solana/install/active_release
• Release version: 1.5.5
• Release URL:
  ✨ Update successful
Adding export PATH="/<my_path>/solana/install/active_release/bin:$PATH" to /<my_other_path>/.profile
Adding export PATH="/<my_path>/solana/install/active_release/bin:$PATH" to /<my_other_path>/.bash_profile

Close and reopen your terminal to apply the PATH changes or run the following in your existing shell:
  export PATH="/<my_path>/solana/install/active_release/bin:$PATH"

Run export PATH as the output says:

$ export PATH="/<my_path>/solana/install/active_release/bin:$PATH"

Close the current terminal and open a new one. Check Solana:

$ solana --version
solana-cli 1.5.5 (src:10e12d14; feat:1043916741)

Try update command:

$ solana-install update
Configuration: /<my_path>/.config/solana/install/config.yml
Active release directory: /<my_path>/.local/share/solana/install/active_release
• Release version: 1.5.5
• Release URL:
1.5.5 is present, no download required.
  ✨ Update successful

I use a pre-build version, so I download it as the doc says:

$ cd solana-release/
$ ls
bin		version.yml

$ export PATH=$PWD/bin:$PATH

solana --help shows a huge list of commands:

$ solana --help
solana-cli 1.4.25 (src:893cc764; feat:2339469691)
Blockchain, Rebuilt for Scale


    -h, --help                           Prints help information
        --no-address-labels              Do not use address labels in the output
        --skip-seed-phrase-validation    Skip validation of seed phrases. Use this if your phrase does not use the BIP39
                                         official English word list
    -V, --version                        Prints version information
    -v, --verbose                        Show additional information

        --commitment <COMMITMENT_LEVEL>    Return information at the selected commitment level [possible values: recent,
                                           single, singleGossip, root, max]
    -C, --config <FILEPATH>                Configuration file to use [default:
    -u, --url <URL_OR_MONIKER>             URL for Solana's JSON RPC or moniker (or their first letter): [mainnet-beta,
                                           testnet, devnet, localhost]
    -k, --keypair <KEYPAIR>                Filepath or URL to a keypair
        --output <FORMAT>                  Return information in specified output format [possible values: json, json-
        --ws <URL>                         WebSocket URL for the solana cluster

    account                        Show the contents of an account
    address                        Get your public key
    airdrop                        Request lamports
    authorize-nonce-account        Assign account authority to a new entity
    balance                        Get your balance
    block                          Get a confirmed block
    block-height                   Get current block height
    block-production               Show information about block production
    block-time                     Get estimated production time of a block
    catchup                        Wait for a validator to catch up to the cluster
    cluster-date                   Get current cluster date, computed from genesis creation time and network time
    cluster-version                Get the version of the cluster entrypoint
    config                         Solana command-line tool configuration settings
    confirm                        Confirm transaction by signature
    create-address-with-seed       Generate a derived account address with a seed
    create-nonce-account           Create a nonce account
    create-stake-account           Create a stake account
    create-vote-account            Create a vote account
    deactivate-stake               Deactivate the delegated stake from the stake account
    decode-transaction             Decode a base-58 binary transaction
    delegate-stake                 Delegate stake to a vote account
    deploy                         Deploy a program
    epoch                          Get current epoch
    epoch-info                     Get information about the current epoch
    feature                        Runtime feature management
    fees                           Display current cluster fees
    first-available-block          Get the first available block in the storage
    genesis-hash                   Get the genesis hash
    gossip                         Show the current gossip network nodes
    help                           Prints this message or the help of the given subcommand(s)
    inflation                      Show inflation information
    largest-accounts               Get addresses of largest cluster accounts
    leader-schedule                Display leader schedule
    live-slots                     Show information about the current slot progression
    logs                           Stream transaction logs
    merge-stake                    Merges one stake account into another
    new-nonce                      Generate a new nonce, rendering the existing nonce useless
    nonce                          Get the current nonce value
    nonce-account                  Show the contents of a nonce account
    pay                            Deprecated alias for the transfer command
    ping                           Submit transactions sequentially
    program                        Program management
    rent                           Calculate per-epoch and rent-exempt-minimum values for a given account data
    resolve-signer                 Checks that a signer is valid, and returns its specific path; useful for signers
                                   that may be specified generally, eg. usb://ledger
    slot                           Get current slot
    split-stake                    Duplicate a stake account, splitting the tokens between the two
    stake-account                  Show the contents of a stake account
    stake-authorize                Authorize a new signing keypair for the given stake account
    stake-history                  Show the stake history
    stake-set-lockup               Set Lockup for the stake account
    stakes                         Show stake account information
    supply                         Get information about the cluster supply of SOL
    transaction-count              Get current transaction count
    transaction-history            Show historical transactions affecting the given address from newest to oldest
    transfer                       Transfer funds between system accounts
    validator-info                 Publish/get Validator info on Solana
    validators                     Show summary information about the current validators
    vote-account                   Show the contents of a vote account
    vote-authorize-voter           Authorize a new vote signing keypair for the given vote account
    vote-authorize-withdrawer      Authorize a new withdraw signing keypair for the given vote account
    vote-update-commission         Update the vote account's commission
    vote-update-validator          Update the vote account's validator identity
    wait-for-max-stake             Wait for the max stake of any one node to drop below a percentage of total.
    withdraw-from-nonce-account    Withdraw SOL from the nonce account
    withdraw-from-vote-account     Withdraw lamports from a vote account into a specified account
    withdraw-stake                 Withdraw the unstaked SOL from the stake account

And then a lot of wallet explanations: Using Solana CLI

TBA on Aleo


Aleo hacklog

Install Aleo

$ cargo install aleo
    Updating index
  Downloaded aleo v0.2.0
   Compiling aleo v0.2.0
    Finished release [optimized] target(s) in 3m 50s
  Installing /Users/aimeez/.cargo/bin/aleo                                       Installed package `aleo v0.2.0` (executable `aleo`)

$ aleo
aleo 0.2.0
The Aleo Team <>


    -d, --debug      Enable debug mode
    -h, --help       Prints help information
    -V, --version    Prints version information
    -v, --verbose    Enable verbose mode

    help    Prints this message or the help of the given subcommand(s)
    new     Generates a new Aleo account

Test some commands:

aleo new --seed testtest
error: Invalid value for '--seed <seed>': invalid digit found in string
Aimees-MacBook-Pro:aleo aimeez$ aleo new --seed <my_test_seed>

  Private Key  APrivateKey1yg4Nkz7waZ4Smte38XSg9a4tH7vydLCQCr2GPr7QArjhmiQ # only for test purposes
     View Key  AViewKey1cXkqYJ3exGTVhrMCJrQPCwcGFnsb1d153HSGk5U5b7Q4
      Address  aleo1ztpasdk5acqz2nphfcn8mz3dyd9d5z23kjun04r7vy0gqfszrsyq2tw9qk

$ cargo run --release --example dummy_transaction
error: failed to parse lock file at: /<my_path>/aleo/Cargo.lock

Caused by:
  package `bytes` is specified twice in the lockfile

There are more errors because some packages are specified twice in the lockfile. The lockfile is generated by cargo and is not supposed to be edited manually. So I delete Cargo.lock file, and run the example again. Now it built. (Read cargo book: Cargo.toml vs Cargo.lock).

$ rm Cargo.lock
$ cargo clean
$ cargo run --release --example dummy_transaction
    Updating index
  Downloaded httparse v1.3.5
   Compiling aleo v0.2.0 (/<my_path>/aleo)
    Finished release [optimized] target(s) in 5m 00s
     Running `target/release/examples/dummy_transaction`

WARNING - "outer_snark_pk-12b0f50.params" does not exist. snarkVM will download this file remotely and store it locally. Please ensure "outer_snark_pk-12b0f50.params" is stored in "/<my_path>/.cargo/registry/src/".

snarkvm_parameters::params - Downloading parameters...
snarkvm_parameters::params - 100.00% complete (479 MB total)
snarkvm_parameters::params - Download complete
snarkvm_parameters::params - Storing parameters ("/<my_path>/.cargo/registry/src/")

I don’t know what to expect from this example, though.

Install Leo

$ cargo install leo-lang
    Updating index
  Downloaded leo-lang v1.0.8
   Compiling leo-lang v1.0.8
    Finished release [optimized] target(s) in 9m 14s
  Installing /<my_path>/.cargo/bin/leo                                        Installed package `leo-lang v1.0.8` (executable `leo`)

$ leo
leo v1.0.8
The Aleo Team <>
Leo compiler and package manager


    -d, --debug    Enables debugging mode
    -h, --help     Prints help information

    new        Create a new Leo package in a new directory
    init       Create a new Leo package in an existing directory
    build      Compile the current package as a program
    watch      Watch the changes of the leo's source files
    test       Compile and run all tests in the current package
    setup      Run a program setup
    prove      Run the program and produce a proof
    run        Run a program with input variables
    login      Login to the Aleo Package Manager
    add        Install a package from the Aleo Package Manager
    remove     Uninstall a package from the current package
    publish    Publish the current package to the Aleo Package Manager
    deploy     Deploy the current package as a program to the network (*)
    clean      Clean the output directory
    lint       Lints the Leo files in the package (*)
    update     Update Leo to the latest version

Let create a project firsttest:

$ leo new firsttest
Initializing Successfully initialized package "firsttest"

$ cd firsttest/
$ ls
Leo.toml	inputs		src
$ ls src/
$ ls inputs/	firsttest.state

The file tree looks like this:

├── Leo.toml
├── inputs/
│ ├──
│ └── firsttest.state
└── src/
  └── main.leo

Run firsttest:

$ leo run
 Compiling Starting...
 Compiling Compiling main program... ("/<my_path>/firsttest/src/main.leo")
 Compiling Complete
      Done Finished in 6 milliseconds

     Setup Starting...
     Setup Saving proving key ("/<my_path>/firsttest/outputs/firsttest.lpk")
     Setup Complete
     Setup Saving verification key ("/<my_path>/firsttest/outputs/firsttest.lvk")
     Setup Complete
      Done Finished in 40 milliseconds

   Proving Starting...
   Proving Saving proof... ("/<my_path>/firsttest/outputs/firsttest.proof")
      Done Finished in 10 milliseconds

 Verifying Starting...
 Verifying Proof is valid
      Done Finished in 2 milliseconds

Aleo references

This site is generated with ox-hugo for Emacs/Org-mode + hugo-bare-min-theme [Aimee's Study Notes]